Fruit Juice: to drink or not to drink, that is the question!
To well understand the context some things must be defined:
1. Weight gain and obesity are multifactorial and complex. Read more in "São muitos fatores".
2. Sugar sweetened beverages and fruit juice have differences. The group of sugar sweetened beverages include nectars, soda, etc. while fruit juice is the one in which there is no addition of sugars or other compounds.
In the last years, 100% fruit juice intaking has been extensively studied because of the possibility of its contribution on weight gain and obesity, especially among children and teenagers.
The literature has controversies, with studies showing this association and others not. Controversies are even greater if these studies are financing by food industry.
It is well established that the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages promotes weight gain among children and adults, whereas for 100% fruit juices it remains unclear.
Let's go to the pros and cons:
Then, what is the recommendation?
It is recommended that fruit juice should not be part of dietary recommendations for increasing the consumption of fruits. The consumption of fruits should always be encouraged.
The consumption of 100% fruit juice should be limited to a maximum of one third of the total recommended fruit group intake. That means: one glass of 100% fruit juice of 1 serving of fruit and 2 to 3 servings of fruit per day.
The juice should not be used for hydration. For hydration we drink water!
Nutritional terrorism is always bad and a well-balanced interpretation of studies and in the consumption is preferable, always.
Auerbach BJ, Wolf FM, Hikida A, et al. Fruit Juice and Change in BMI: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2017;139(4):e20162454
Rampersaud GC, Valim MF. 100% Citrus Juice: Nutritional Contribution, Dietary Benefits, and Association with Anthropometric Measures, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015.
Crowe-White K, O'Neil CE, Parrott JS, et al. Impact of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on Diet and Weight Status of Children: An Evidence-based Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015.
Shefferly A, Scharf RJ, DeBoer MD. Longitudinal Evaluation of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on BMI Status in 2–5 Year-Old Children. Pediatr Obes. 2016, 11(3): 221–227.
Malik VS, Pan A, Willet WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;98:1084–102.
Imamura F, O’Connor L, Ye Z, et al. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artiﬁcially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. Br J Sports Med 2016;50:496–504.